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By Lawrence Kruger, Barbara E. Rodin (auth.), Ralph L. Kitchell, Howard H. Erickson (eds.)

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D. Coulter, and R. A. Maunz. ]. Neurophysiol. 37: 357-372, 1974. 27. Zimmermann, M. Peripheral and central nervous mechanisms of nociception, pain and pain therapy. In: Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, edited by J. J. Bonica, J. C. Liebeskind, and D. G. Albe-Fessard. New York: Raven, 1979, vol. 3, p. 3-32. THREE Ascending Pathways Transmitting Nociceptive Information in Animals William D. Willis, Jr. Marine Biomedical Institute, Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Anatomy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas Location of Nociceptive Tracts in Spinal White Matter o Somatosensory Tracts Ascending in Ventrolateral White Matter o Somatosensory Tracts Ascending in Dorsal Part of Spinal Cord o Response Properties of Neurons in Candidate Nociceptive Pathways: Spinothalamic tract, Spinomesencephalic and spinoreticular tracts, Spinocervical tract, Second-order dorsal column pathway o Conclusions The responses of animals to noxious stimuli are comparable to those of humans and thus include both sensory and motor reactions (37).

Gilberg, M. Goldstein, and J. R. Kimmell. Presence of avian pancreatic polypeptide-like immunoreactivity in catecholamine and methionine-enkephalin-containing neurons within the central nervous system. Neurosci. Lett. 21: 125-130, 1981. 13. , A. H. -M. Besson. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). I. Effects on dorsal horn convergent neurons in the rat. Pain 6: 283-304, 1979. 14. Liebeskind, J. , G. -M. Besson, and J. L. Oliveras. Analgesia from electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter in the cat.

London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1967. 107. Sinclair, D. C. Mechanisms of Cutaneous Sensation. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1981. 108. Sinclair, D. , G. Weddell, and E. Zander. The relationship of cutaneous sensibility to neurohistology in the human pinna. J. Anot. 86: 402-411, 1952. 109. Sweet, W. H. Animal models of chronic pain: their possible validation for human experience with posterior rhizotomy and congenital analgesia. Pain 10: 275-295, 1981. 110. Szolcsanyi, J. A pharmacological approach to elucidation of the role of different nerve fibers and receptor endings in mediation of pain.

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