By D. R. Griffin (auth.), D. R. Griffin (eds.)
the oleic acid on a dwell and wriggling sister or mom and chorus from evicting her from our hive. yet does the take place rence of unintelligent habit suffice to illustrate the whole absence of psychological event below any situations? Ethologists from a few far away galaxy may perhaps simply parent ex amples of silly and maladaptive habit in our personal species. yet do circumstances of human stupidity end up that none people is ever consciously conscious of what he's dOing? No to be had evi dence compels us to think that bugs, or the other animals, event any kind of cognizance, or deliberately plan any in their habit. yet neither are we pressured to think the opposite. In parts the place info are few and of restricted rel evance, dogmatic negativity can simply restrict what scientists even attempt to examine, and therefore might be hold up or hinder im portant insights and discoveries. a few of the contributors agreed reliable place to begin will be to think about what we all know of our personal pondering, subjec tive emotions, and cognizance, after which stream directly to inquire even if different species event something comparable. Such an ap proach was thought of fallaciously anthropomorphic. however it turns out now to be greatly if no longer universally well-known that it is a severe objection provided that one has already assumed upfront that unsleeping considering is uniquely human, and the accu sation of anthropomorphism is then only a reiteration of the earlier conviction.
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Extra info for Animal Mind — Human Mind: Report of the Dahlem Workshop on Animal Mind — Human Mind, Berlin 1981, March 22–27
In the present context, we would like to point out some possible homologies between animal and human ERPs. One class of ERP that appears to be virtually identical in man and monkeys includes the slow preparatory potentials, the CNV or "expectancy wave" and the motor readiness potentials. The CNV is a slow negative ERP which arises at the surface of the brain during periods of sensory expectation or motor preparation. Studies in monkeys have found that the CNV is generated in the superficial cortical layers and is paralleled by slow potential changes in deeper brain structures.
The problems asso- ciated with the comparison of closely related animals can be dealt with statistically and by the construction of tests with high resolving power. However, neither of these procedures will help with the problem of test inequality. Therefore, comparisons of the intelligence of closely related animal populations will probably be more meaningful than comparisons of animals with more remote common ancestry. EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS IN THE INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR OF ANI~ffiLS Research in animal behavior that has been directed at adducing evidence in support of Lloyd Morgan's "psychological scale" has generally been disappointing because the expected smooth progression of abilities did not emerge.
The idea of human intelligence as an abstract characterization of an organism's behavioral responses to pressures from the environment appears to be the prevailing view among contemporary theorists. The notion also seems well suited to animal intelligence and is remarkably close to Romanes' view. It is a very different formulation from that of Lloyd Morgan's hierarchy of faculties with the higher faculties emerging from the lower. The topic of intelligence is mentioned only in passing, if at all, in contemporary textbooks of comparative psychology or animal behavior.