Download Ancient Iraq (3rd Edition) by Georges Roux PDF

By Georges Roux

The ebook presents an creation to the historical past of historic Mesopotamia and its civilizations, incorporating archaeological and old unearths as much as 1992.

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This does not lead us to regard any of them as simply an imitation of the others. Shang China, too, may have had some links with western Asia; at any rate the war chariots found in Shang graves at Anyang were a western Asian invention and must have reached China via the steppes of central Asia. But no archaeologist today would suggest that Shang civilization owes its origin to western contact. The case for independent development of civilizations becomes fully incontrovertible when we turn to the Americas.

Prestate and State-Organized Societies Anthropologists and archaeologists have long been interested in the origins of civilization, believing that human societies have evolved along many branchlike tracks. Such “multilinear evolution” at a general level is a fundamental tenet of most anthropological theorizing about the origin of states, and it rests on the assumption that the roots of all preindustrial civilizations Theories of States 27 lie in earlier and simpler societies, which in many respects resembled the “traditional” tribal societies of recent times.

Tenochtitlán lay on an island in the shallow waters of a lake in the valley of Mexico, joined to the mainland by earthen causeways. A quarter of a million people lived in or around the Aztec capital. Twenty thousand people a day, many more on formal market days, visited its vast market, larger than that of Seville or Constantinople. The Spaniards marveled at the well-ordered city. They persuaded the Aztec ruler Moctezuma to let them climb to the summit of the highest pyramid, where the shrines of Huitzilopochtli, the sun god, and Tlaloc, the deity of rain, lay side by side.

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