By James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,
South Asia's HIV epidemic is extremely heterogeneous. hence, trained, prioritized, and potent responses necessitate an knowing of the epidemic range among and inside nations. additional unfold of HIV in South Asia is preventable. the long run dimension of South Asia's epidemic relies on an efficient two-pronged method: to begin with, at the scope and effectiveness of HIV prevention courses for intercourse employees and their consumers, injecting drug clients and their sexual companions, and males having intercourse with males and their different sexual companions; and secondly, at the effectiveness of efforts to deal with the underlying socio-economic determinants of the epidemic, and to lessen stigma and discrimination in the direction of humans undertaking excessive danger behaviors, usually marginalized in society, in addition to humans residing with HIV and AIDS. This overview used to be undertaken to supply a foundation for rigorous, evidence-informed HIV coverage and programming in South Asia.
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Extra info for AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a Heterogenous Epidemic (Health, Nutrition and Population Series)
Those studies suggest that Karachi has almost 5,000 male SWs and 7,626 hijras (NACP 2005a), whereas Lahore has 7,500 male SWs and 2,000 hijras (NACP and Naz Foundation International 2005). These sites are therefore appropriate for HIV and second-generation surveillance among MSM, which Pakistan has initiated through the selection of populous cities for both serological and behavioral surveillance. BSS data from India (NACO 2001c) highlight that among partners of MSM, a greater proportion are male SWs.
Pakistan Pakistan launched sentinel HIV surveillance in 1986. The current site network consists of the following: • voluntary counseling and testing centers in all four provinces (Balochistan, Northwest Frontier Province, Punjab, and Sindh) • all public sector blood banks in all four provinces • STI clinics in all tertiary-level hospitals in three provinces (Northwest Frontier Province, Punjab, and Sindh). 18 • AIDS in South Asia More recently, the Canadian International Development Agency has supported Pakistan’s launch of a second-generation surveillance program that includes these objectives: • enhanced mapping to determine the locations and sizes of key high-risk networks of female and male SWs, IDUs, and hijras (transgendered men) • integrated biological and behavioral surveillance (IBBS) among high-risk groups to better understand HIV transmission dynamics and epidemic potential.
In Bangladesh, recent studies among samples of rural men and women living in the Matlab region and among a “general” population of women attending a health care clinic in Dhaka have not found any HIV cases (NASP 2005). 14 percent, despite significant levels of herpes simplex virus–type 2 (NSACP 2005). S. Bureau of the Census 2006). Neither Afghanistan nor the Maldives has undertaken efforts to estimate HIV prevalence in the general population. CHAPTER 6 Country-Specific Analyses The country analyses have been undertaken following reviews of available published and unpublished literature.