By Stefano Basagni; et al
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Finally, multicasting, which is essential for supporting multiparty multimedia communications, has not been studied as extensively, and significant research effort is needed to come up with efficient multicasting algorithms to cope with multicast group dynamics. ț QoS Support. Quality of Service support is inherently difficult in an ad hoc environment. In order to support real-time multimedia applications, effort must be made to control network QoS factors such as end-to-end delay, packet loss, and jitter.
Lack of centralized monitoring and management points means these types of misbehaviors cannot be detected and isolated quickly and easily, adding significant complexity to protocol design. 8. Network Security. Mobile wireless networks are generally more vulnerable to information and physical security threats than fixed-wireline networks. The use of open and shared broadcast wireless channels means nodes with inadequate physical protection are prone to security threats. In addition, because a mobile ad hoc network is a distributed infrastructureless network, it mainly relies on individual security solution from each mobile node, as centralized security control is hard to implement.
In general, both AODV and DSR work well in small-to-medium-sized networks with moderate mobility. TORA is another source-initiated on-demand routing protocol, built on the concept of link reversal  of Directed Acyclic Graph (ACG). In addition to being loop-free and bandwidth-efficient, TORA has the property of being highly adaptive and quick in route repair during link failure, while providing multiple routes for any desired source/destination pair. These features make it especially suitable for large highly dynamic mobile ad hoc environments with dense populations of nodes.