By Sandra A. Thompson
Wappo is an indigenous language, regularly considered as a language isolate, which was spoken within the Russian River Valley, simply north of San Francisco, California. This reference grammar is predicated at the speech of Laura Fish Somersal, its final fluent speaker, who died in 1990, and represents the main large information and grammatical learn ever performed in this language. The grammar makes a speciality of morphosyntax, fairly nominal, verbal, and clausal buildings and clause combining styles, from a functional/typological standpoint.
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Extra resources for A Reference Grammar of Wappo (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
While the forms of many of the inflectional categories differ according the class of verb, the categories themselves are relatively clear. 3, we will present the verb classes and the effect they have on the forms of the inflectional morphemes. 1 Habitual/progressive [= DUR] What we are glossing DUR (for ‘durative’) in this grammar is the inflectional category expressing habitual or progressive actions. 1). Because both DUR and STAT can express what Comrie (1976) identifies as present, we do not use this label.
Hin - i ma - muyel - khiʔ sun - NOM DIR - go:down - STAT ‘the sun has set’ (369) (34) a. cephi k'u:wi: - yaʔ 3SG:NOM run - DUR ‘s/he’s running’ (o) 38 The Verb Phrase b. cephi k'uwey - khiʔ 3SG:NOM run - STAT ‘s/he arrived (somewhere) by running’ (369) (35) a. c'ic'a - t - i ho - yok'a: - laʔ bird - PL - NOM DIR - fly - DUR ‘the birds are flying around’ (369) b. sumi cic'a - t - i ho - yok'el - khiʔ yesterday bird - PL - NOM DIR - fly - STAT ‘yesterday the birds were flying around [but have now roosted]’ (13, 369) (36) a.
3 below; from here on, we will not gloss the epenthetic segments separately as EP). , ‘spiders, legs are eight’] (43) Minimal and near-minimal contrasts between the durative suffix and the stative suffix help to illustrate the functional differences between them: (32) a. kayi:naʔ - i naleʔ - šaʔ chicken - NOM angry - DUR ‘the chicken is behaving angrily’ (8) b. kayi:naʔ - i naleʔ - iš - khiʔ chicken - NOM angry - become - STAT ‘the chicken has gotten angry’ (8) (33) a. hin - i ma - muyel - seʔ sun - NOM DIR - go:down - DUR ‘the sun is setting’ (369) b.